The Health Professions Council of Zambia (HPCZ) holds the view that a health practitioner should, at all times, act in the best interest of patients, placing their clinical needs paramount. Thus, the health practitioner should always try to avoid potential conflicts of interests and maintain professional autonomy and commitment to the appropriate professional and ethical norms.


The technical knowledge and high technology equipment are encouraged but they should not be inappropriately used to over-service patients in order to obtain intolerable demands by appropriately qualified health practitioners; over-servicing or perverse incentive of whatever nature is unacceptable.


HPCZ seeks to identify and provide guidance regarding those incentive schemes and forms of inducement which it finds unacceptable. Note that the perverse incentives or potential conflicts of interests set out in this document should not in any way be regarded as an exhaustive list. Perverse Incentives apply to both public and private health facilities.